Forest fires monitoring

As a result of global warming, the forest fires danger increases annually. This problem is also related to the absence of modern systems of monitoring and the prevention of the forest fires, corresponding to the actual technogenic and natural factors influencing process of occurrence of forest fires.

The system of land monitoring (by requirements of the Federal forestry service of Russia), in each timber enterprise, a forest area, national park, preserve there should be fire-chemical stations (FCS). Each FCS should be equipped with:
1. Meteopoint (if the territory served by FCS is on distance more than 25 km from the nearest meteorological station of the State MeteoCenter).
2. The device for measurement of the weather fire danger (Such devices had been manufactured by The Far East Scientific Research Institute of a Forestry, in Russia).

However few subjects of forestry activity completely fulfill the requirements on monitoring of fire danger in forests and of the prevention of forest fires. The main causes are high costs of most fire danger monitoring devices, and the absence of complex systems of monitoring of fire danger in the Russian market.

Burstroyproject Ltd. has developed a universal complex (UKMP) of parameters monitoring for technogenic or natural emergency situations. This complex can be used as station for measurement of meteorological conditions in the system of the fire-dangerous weather monitoring. The monitoring complex is issued in stationary or mobile variants.

The weather data received from (UKMP) arrive in the FCS`s system of monitoring and forecasting of the fire danger. In the monitoring system there is a data processing, forecasting of forest fires in correspondence with the valuation parameters of large forests. Degree of fire danger in sites are displayed on the forestry map or a region. Also the monitoring system of fire danger (the decision-making supporting subsystem) offers some of the list of possible actions for the fire divisions providing fire safety of regional woods.

Burstroyproject Ltd. introduced an hierarchical probabilistic model of the forest fire appearance, to be used for forecasting of forest fires and extreme situations in forests through the monitoring of a various combination of the technogenic and natural factors leading to a forest fire.

Use of such universal complexes of parameters monitoring (UKMP) and such system of fire danger monitoring, will allow to reduce quantity of forest fires a minimum twice because of preventive measures.

The universal complex of parameters monitoring is 2-4 times cheaper than foreign analogues.

System of fire danger monitoring and emergency situation forecasting

Burstroyproject Ltd. has developed the System of the forest fire danger forecasting based on weather conditions monitoring. The parameters of weather and of spreading surface are measured by the universal complex of monitoring of parameters (UKMP-L, version for forests). The complex provides measurement of: air temperatures; temperatures of a spreading surface (non-contact); precipitation for the certain period. The data received from UKMP-L goes to the system of fire danger monitoring and forecasting (fig. 1). In the monitoring system there are: data processing, forecasting of forest fires, database of forestís valuation parameters, displaying of fire danger level for forestry sites at a regional map.

    Fig. 1. System of fire danger monitoring and emergency situation forecasting

enlarge

The monitoring centre operator (the person on duty of the fire-chemical station) can see the detailed information on weather conditions and temperature of a spreading surface.

    Fig. 2a. The information on weather conditions - Precipitation level

enlarge
    Fig. 2b. The information on weather conditions - Temperature of spreading surface

enlarge
    Fig. 2c. The information on weather conditions - Weather forecast (from State MeteoCenter)

enlarge
    Fig. 2d. The information on weather conditions - the Meteolocator (from State MeteoCenter)

enlarge

Also the system of fire danger monitoring (decision-making support subsystem) offers the list of possible actions of firefighting divisions, including recommendations about restrictions at forestry activity when increasing of fire danger, optimal routes of flights for aviation patrol of forests.
    Fig. 3. Planning system on aviation patrol of forests

enlarge

According to the international experience, the most effectual measures for decrease quantity of forest fires are preventive measures, such as decreasing of forestry activity during the dangerous period. Estimations of Russian and foreign experts show that introduction of the system of fire danger monitoring and realization of preventive measures as results of monitoring of fire-dangerous weather conditions allow to decrease the quantity of forest fires on 20-50 %.